A study published in Nature on March 22 shows that the winds are so strong that they create an electromagnetic field.
The results were a surprise to scientists, but one that will be of interest to the solar system, where it was not expected to be so strong.
“The reason why the solar wind is so strong is that there is a force called an electron orbital resonance.
This force is the only one in the solar atmosphere that is responsible for the strong winds we see,” said senior author Mark H. Sadoway, a professor of atmospheric sciences at the University of Minnesota.
“You have to understand that the sun is made up of many different electrons, and the electron orbital resonances in the atmosphere make it difficult to get accurate measurements of them all.”
The research, led by the University at Buffalo’s Andrew Fuchs, is based on measurements taken by a small telescope on Mount Erebus, a large volcanic crater in Antarctica.
It was published online on March 23 in the journal Nature.
“There is a lot of interest in understanding how the sun’s solar wind interacts with the atmosphere, but we haven’t been able to do that because the instruments on these telescopes are so tiny,” said Sadowaya.
“So this paper gives us the opportunity to do a really high-resolution measurement of how the solar ionosphere interacts with these electrons.”
The results are based on a combination of three different instruments — one from the European Space Agency (ESA), one from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and one from Cornell University’s X-ray Center.
All of the instruments use the same technique, which uses a series of small, high-speed mirrors that focus light on a particular point in the Sun’s disk.
These mirrors can collect data about how the electrons are traveling in a certain direction or spin, which is used to measure the electrical properties of the electrons’ electrons.
These measurements allow scientists to calculate the electron spin, or electric field, of each electron, which can then be used to calculate its kinetic energy.
“We can do this because the electrons spin in the direction we want them to spin, and because we can measure the electron speed, which we then use to calculate their electric field,” said H. Scott Stroud, the lead author of the study.
“It allows us to calculate how much energy each electron contributes to the electric field of the Sun.”
The researchers also analyzed data from instruments onboard the European and NASA satellites, including the European XMM-Newton and XMM instrument, as well as the XMM/Gamma satellite, the X-Ray spectrometer, and other space-based instruments.
The data were collected over about three months in December and January of 2014, during the peak of the solar storm season, and include measurements of electrons traveling in different directions and the spins of the electron particles.
“As a result, we can determine how much the electron spins have changed in each measurement,” said Fuchs.
The researchers looked at how the electron spinning changes in a particular direction.
“One way of doing this is by using a different type of radar to do an X-Y mapping,” explained Sadoways.
There is a very slight decrease in the spin from the previous measurement.” “
And then, as you see, we see that the spin has actually changed a lot.
There is a very slight decrease in the spin from the previous measurement.”
In other words, the spin is down a little bit from the measurements in December, but it is up a little from the results in January.
The scientists then used an algorithm to calculate an electron spin change using a mathematical formula.
This calculation was then compared to the measurements taken in December.
“Basically, the equation looks like this,” explained Stroud.
“In December, we measured the spin to be about one and a half times that of the previous measurements, so that means we have a theoretical energy of about 2.2 electron volts per meter squared.
This is a big improvement from what we were doing in December.”
This new measurement was made to compare the solar spin with that recorded in January, which was about four times what we would expect from the spin observed in December in comparison to January.
“I think that’s probably what was really surprising to us, and what’s going to get us excited,” said Stroud of the new results.
“Even though we haven the data now, we’re still quite a ways off from knowing how much that electron spin has changed.
So, the next step is to do more observations of this region of the atmosphere.”
The paper also looks at how much of an electron’s spin changes in different places on the Sun.
“What we found is that the changes in the electron’s rotation are much larger in the upper part of the ionosphere, around the equator, than they are in the lower part of it, which means